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Terminal TWA Historis dan Konsulat Lockheed di JFK


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As I handed the curb-parked convertible and entered the doors of the Eero Saarinen-designed TWA Terminal with its winged, flight-suggesting roof at JFK World Airport on a mid-September day, nothing, I well-known, had modified, besides that the passenger ascertain-in counters flanking either aspect were refreshingly devoid of strains. Presumably that should always were a effect.

Mounting the dozen stairs after which redescending folk who ended in the acquainted Sunken Lounge, I eyed the Solari split-flap arrivals and departures board, its panels periodically flipping and clacking treasure stacking poker chips, but they merely published smooth squares. There were no flight numbers, no times, and no destinations.

But by views of the typical airliners on the ramp by the bottom-to-ceiling angled glass showing TWA’s crimson-and-white livery, but lacking a single jet engine, my destination this present day might presumably maybe only be labeled “history” or, even “aviation history. ” Presumably that used to be appropriate for the “bags” I introduced: a elevate-on consisting of a clipboard and a pen.

The scene sooner than me used to be a suspended one. The interval song and the announcements echoing by my head transported me to the one I used to be not in.

“TWA Starstream Flight 802 to Paris, now boarding at gate one,” they acknowledged.

My eyes, scanning previous the dwelling of the once well-known and acquainted Brass Rail Restaurant in direction of the twin, principal terminal connecting tubes quiet covered with chili crimson pepper carpeting to the departure design, I fully expected to absorb plenty of Boeing 707-320Bs with their bluntly pointed, radome noses, 35-stage swept wings, and Pratt and Whitney JT3D-3B low bypass ratio turbofans.

But the Lockheed L-1649A Starliner Constellation, representing the head-of-piston trend, indicated that the generation preserved and depicted “accessible” used to be not the one my thoughts tried to persuade me quiet existed “in right here.” As an different, it used to be twenty years earlier, of the 1960s, and I had entered a preserved pocket of time.


As an expression, illustration, and trend of the publish-World Battle II-fueled, technology-facilitated industrial airline enterprise and the then-named Idlewild World Airport whose evolution resulted from it, the TWA Terminal used to be and is an architecturally most attention-grabbing image of all of it. It captures the feeling of flight with its flit-comparable to shell and the fluid, birth inner below it.

Unlike many of this present day’s single-constructing, a pair of-airline facilities, it traces its starting do to 1954 when the Port Authority of Unique York devised its terminal metropolis thought. Looking ahead to the necessity for infrastructure to cater to growing bolt quiz, it completed a thought wherein each and each principal provider would manufacture, build, and own its maintain terminal, fostering, in the technique, model identity. Though the TWA facility used to be the architectural response to the Port Authority’s masterplan, its airline-association used to be regarded as one of its intentions from the open, as stated by the mission fee, which first sought an efficient ground operations infrastructure, but secondarily wanted “to provide TWA with selling, publicity, and attention “with it.

That the chosen dwelling for it used to be at the apex of the airport’s procure accurate of entry to road, cemented the intention practically as mighty because the hardened substance which formed it, and that it quiet does this present day, despite the two-decade interval for the reason that airline’s death, serves this publish-provider motive.

Eero Saarinen, a Finnish-American architect and designer and rarely regarded as a mid-century grasp, used to be chosen to transform each and each Idlewild’s and TWA’s vision into concrete truth in 1955. Tracing his maintain genealogical roots to his father, Eliel Saarinen, an architect, and his mom, Loja Saarinien, a textile artist, he might presumably maybe declare that the skill ran by his veins correct as freely as did his blood when he used to be born in 1910. After studying sculpture in Paris, architecture at Yale University, and manufacture at the Cranbrook Academy of Art work in Michigan, he transformed arena cloth into most attention-grabbing feature in such creations because the St. Louis Gateway Arch and Washington-Dulles World Airport.

Though Eero Saarinen completed his purpose of crafting an summary illustration of flight in the TWA Terminal, its inspiration used to be by no formulation positively particular, some suggesting that a thumb despair accurate into a hollowed grapefruit rind resulted in the eventual twisted, concrete, symmetrically positioned roof sections that seamlessly flowed from the piers that supported them and were only separated by slim skylights. The four met at a circular pendent heart point.

The roof’s flit ground curvature or camber persevered in the crimson and white inner by formulation of the upper walkaway supported columns that merged into each and each ground and ceiling as if they were integral to them. Its lack of rectangularity used to be evident in its other solutions. The stairways, as an illustration, were twisted and its terminal and departure lounge connecting corridors were more treasure cylindrical tubes.

Its general expression used to be regarded as one of 1960s neo-futurism and residential-age Googie architecture.

Irrespective of what indirectly proved to be Saarinen’s architectural success, it furthermore became his legacy, since a year after he inspected its superstructure in 1961, he handed away at 52, by no formulation having considered his carried out product.

While it used to be meant to again little piston airliners whose capacities by no formulation exceeded a hundred, it used to be not reliable to TWA’s slim body jets, such because the 707 and the 727, mighty less its widebody ones, including the 747, the L-1011 TriStar, and the 767, requiring the addition of jetbridge-linked boarding satellites.

After the provider’s 2001 death, its signature terminal awaited motive or preservation. Its demolition, not lower than, had already been spared. In 1994, it used to be designated a Unique York City landmark, at which interval then Chairwoman of the Landmark Preservation Commission, Larie Beckelman, commented in “The Unique York Times,” “Here might presumably maybe be the quintessential up to date make, expressing trot and the total thought of flight. ”

Eleven years later it used to be positioned on the Nationwide Register of Historical Areas. With its presence not lower than assured, it quiet awaited the two “p’s” -preservation and motive.


Preservation and motive, in the match, became two aspects to the same coin-that is, restore the 392,000-square-foot terminal to recreate its 1960’s splendor and again because the anchor and foyer to at least one other two aspects-on this case, two rectangular , sunless glass structures with 512 hotel rooms developed by MCR / MORSE and four architectural companies at a $ 250 million-plus fee.

Architect Richard Southwick, who oversaw the mission’s restoration, well-known of the TWA Flight Heart, “(It used to be) the preferrred image of publish-battle optimism, the magic of flight, and the class of mid-century up to date architecture.”

Its first company were celebrated in Would possibly maybe well of 2019.

As a “foyer,” it contains the Sunken Lounge with the Solari flight board; a cocktail lounge; a Sundries Store with traditional copies of “Lifestyles,” “Time,” “Comely Housekeeping,” and “Family Circle” magazines; an aged-long-established shoe shine dwelling tucked in the nook (certainly); a TWA Reward Store whose each and each item, one formulation or the different, displays the airline’s model; a 10,000-square-foot health facility with a cycling studio, treadmills, ellipticals, a spa share, and non-public trainers; and the Paris CafĂ© by Jean-Georges, which occupies the footprint of the customary one, along with that of the Lisbon Lounge, on regarded as one of many two mezzanines and serves cuisine inspired by TWA in-flight menus. There is furthermore 50,000 square feet of meeting and match dwelling.

The two cylindrical tubes-the “Saarinen” to the left and the “Hughes” to the true-lead, by formulation of halfway, in the starting do nonexistent cutouts, to the two seven-memoir glass, metal, and concrete hotel structures, which were required to be complimentary to, but distinguishable from, the landmark terminal.

Seven layers of triple-glazed, 1,740-pound, insulated, ground-to-ceiling glass be particular in-room silence, even though ramp-taxiing plane are only yards away.

Rooms, which either fail to see this scene or the terminal, hire for $ 250 per evening, with lower priced intervals bookable for transit passengers who only look a short sleep and a bathe.

The roof solutions the Infinity Edge Pool and commentary deck, along with a bar.

Handiest the “Saarinen” tube, relieve on the principal level, leads out-or, in the reverse direction, in-to this preserved pocket of time, as expressed by the two ground designations-or eras-on which the elevator at its discontinuance alights: “1960s TWA Lodge” and “Unusual Day JetBlue,” per the two buttons the passenger can press to bolt there.


While the Eero Saarinen designed terminal will even be regarded as a collective, retro, but quiet-residing enviornment, plenty of areas again to intensify it in museum make.

“Located in varied spots for the interval of the passe TWA Terminal-the center of our hotel-as effectively as in the match heart and in the areas that connect our hotel flight tubes to JetBlue’s Terminal 5, the displays (curated by the Unique York Historical Society) allow company to experience the jet age by salubrious artifacts, interactive displays, and non-public narratives, “per the TWA Lodge websites.

Its 2,000 items hail from the TWA Museum in Kansas City, as effectively as from the passe airline employees who donated them.

“Exhibitions focal point on TWA’s history, including Howard Hughes tenure as proprietor, TWA uniforms from 1945 to 2001, and Saarinen’s trend of the terminal at Idlewild Airport,” the websites continues.

Stressing the latter’s importance, Mike Thornton, Unique York Historical Society curator, stated, “The Saarinen terminal is a monument to the optimism and vision of the jet age. These exhibitions invite other folks into the glamor and relaxing that Saarinen and TWA worked so onerous to create and foster. ”

A desk, aged long-established typewriter, and system timetable space-up subsequent to the elevator, as an illustration, recreates a TWA company feature of enterprise, whereas wall displays repeat the provider’s memoir, along with its Howard Hughes affect and its historical plane.

Unlit-and-white photos gracing the partitions opposite the hotel ascertain-in counter depict TWA’s early “airline of the stars” image, with the likes of Jimmy Durante, Marilyn Monroe, Lucille Ball, Elizabeth Taylor, Bob Hope, Frank Sinatra, the Beatles, and Mary Tyler Moore boarding plane as various because the Ford Trimotor and the Boeing 707.

A TWA flight crew uniform and bags indicate is found on the 2nd of the two mezzanines.

“The glamor of air bolt in the jet age catapulted TWA pilots to star statuses, many of them famed as mighty for their speeding real looks as their ability to navigate a transatlantic flight,” per the indicate. “Pilot uniforms with gold epaulets, pins, and jaunty hats burnished their admired feature as of us that can presumably maybe trot by the clouds on the novel jets of the 1960s.”

The evolution of flight attendant uniforms, displayed on mannequin our bodies, depict the 5 designers who created them: Don Loper (1960-1965), Dalton of The United States (1968-1971), Valentino (1971-1975), Stan Herman (1975-1978) ), and Ralph Lauren (1978-2001).


Jotting notes in the Sunken Lounge as I awaited my flight, I seen that even right here I used to be immersed in Saarinen’s world, bodily cradled by womb chairs at tulip tables, each and each of which he designed.

The board persevered to click on and clack, infrequently showing departures by carriers akin to Pan Am. Even it had taken off for a final time, deposited in that dimension is named “history.”

Ground attendants-I bet the in-flight “stewardess” counterpart used to be an acceptable, albeit sexist, title in those days-took drink orders.

Subliminally, subconsciously, and emotionally, I knew that it used to be time to board my flight. No person called it. History did-the lure and admire of aviation history, that is. Responding, I rose from my Sunken Lounge seat, filing down the hall previous the library-cum-e bookshop Reading Room, and at remaining opened the door to the tarmac. There were no strains. No person stopped me. No person asked me for a boarding circulation. Flights destined for yesteryear it sounds as if did not require them. What has already played out in time used to be free and on hand to anyone who wished to recreate or relive it.

Walking over the strains painted to picture mock Runway 04-Honest / 22-Left, I approached the airliner, poised on the ramp in its 1960’s glory. If I would own stood on a ladder, I would own confronted it, nose-to-nose. As a six-decade technological interval, its propellers did nothing to detract it from its sleek manufacture profile.

From the long, angled, aft-retracting nose equipment strut, which touched the tarmac with its twin, equally angled tires to put rubber for the interval of tight ground turns, my eyes moved up to the sunless nose cone and the seven-pane cockpit windscreen. The fuselage, emulating an airfoil, gently sloped upward at the relieve of the cockpit and downward all over again at the rear, correct sooner than the triple vertical stabilizers, an engineering technique to low-ceilinged hangars. The straight, but tapered wings, mounted at a seven-stage dihedral and lined with deicing boots on their main edges, sported four, three-bladed propeller, Wright Turbo-Compound engines. The plane, registered N8083H “Smartly-known particular person of The United States,” had returned “dwelling” and in many concepts used to be Trans World Airlines.

Eagerly anticipating its refurbished cabin, I climbed the boarding steps, which proclaimed, “Up, up and away with TWA,” and stepped inner. “Away” I’d.


Adore the Eero Saarinen designed terminal, the Lockheed Constellation used to be a made from the same power-ever-growing publish-battle quiz, besides the airliners, embodying advancing technology, furthermore principal to remain aggressive with other carriers that operated rival designs.

TWA, on the different hand, had an further urgency for a up to date rapidly replacement. When in contrast to United’s northern and American’s southern route coverages, its mid-continent one positioned it at a drawback.

What used to be principal (by all three airlines) used to be an even bigger skill, longer-differ, more joyful counterpart to, if not replacement for, the ubiquitous twin-engine DC-3 on one-quit transcontinental routes.

“Howard (Hughes) had the postulate he might presumably maybe steel many of the Hollywood crowd’s enterprise some distance flung from the different fellows, if we had a wise-deluxe airliner that can presumably maybe trot nonstop LA to Unique York, or even one-quit by strategy of Chicago,” In response to Jack Frye, TWA’s Vice President of Operations in Douglas J. Ingells’ e book, “L-1011 TriStar and the Lockheed Epic” (Arco Publishers, 1973, p. 73). “He used to be talking eight or nine hours flying time, waft-to-waft, about publish-posh interiors with a club automotive atmosphere in a day plane, and Pullman-fashion berths for evening trips. All of it sounded some distance out, but Hughes used to be stupid serious. ”

Three quad-engine, novel-generation airliners were proposed by the three competing plane manufacturers as we remark: the DC-4E from Douglas, the B-307 Stratoliner from Boeing, and the L-44 Excalibur from Lockheed, which, in April of 1939, served because the Constellation’s early basis, featuring a triple vertical tail, a 36-passenger complement in a pressurized cabin, a 1,200-US gallon gas skill, and a 40,000-pound coarse eight.

As an even bigger trend of the Excalibur, the L-49, which would prove the principal in a series of more ambitious variations, used to be powered by four 2,200-hp Wright Duplex Cyclone engines, and might presumably maybe elevate a 6,000-pound payload at between 250 and 300 mph at a 20,000-foot cruising altitude. Its quiet-air differ used to be 3,500 miles. Most phenomenal to the manufacture, on the different hand, used to be its fuselage.

“… The Constellation’s fuselage, of circular coarse share for the interval of its length, featured a cambered centerline to provide it an airfoil profile in aspect seek for,” per MJ Hardy in his e book, “The Lockheed Constellation” (Arco Publishing Firm, 1973 , pp. 12-14). “This served each and each to expand essentially the most width of level ground, namely in the nose and tail sections, and to shorten the nose wheel leg by drooping the front fuselage …”

After reviewing the manufacture’s specifications and making corrections of his maintain, Hughes ordered the form-in the starting do nine, but subsequently 40. Since TWA itself might presumably maybe not own the funds for the expenditure, he had no option but to pay for the plane himself. “Send the invoice to the Hughes Tool Firm,” he instructed.

First flying in prototype make on January 9, 1943, it demonstrated that every regarded as one of its manufacture dreams had either been completed or exceeded. Maximum (not cruise) tempo used to be 347 mph and coarse weight used to be incrementally increased from an initial 68,000- to a final 86,250-pound most.

Its meant industrial utility, on the different hand, used to be positioned on retain. The December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor attack, opening battle in the Pacific theater, relegated the gorgeous airliners to a troop and provide transport, and other folks L-49s rolling off the manufacturing line and modified for wartime provider, were redesignated C-69s and were dropped at the US Army Air Power as a replacement. On one such flight, an plane in TWA colors and piloted by Hughes for the interval of the principal half of of its transcontinental sector and by Frye on the 2nd half of of it, covered the two,400-mile Burbank-Washington distance on April 17, 1944 in legend time, clearly demonstrating the manufacture’s doable.

“We did not deliberately space out to connect a brand novel transcontinental legend,” Frye later stated. “The outing used to be made in six hours, 58 minutes merely for the reason that Constellation used to be designed and constructed to trot at such mighty speeds.”

The first manufacturing Constellation, now designated L-049 to differentiate it from the customary, pre-battle variants, used to be licensed by the Civil Aeronautics Board on December 11, 1945, and TWA inaugurated the form into transatlantic provider between Unique York and Paris-Orly three months later, on February 5. Powered by R-3350 engines with three-bladed, 15.2-foot-diameter, reversible pitch, fully feathering propellers, the appropriately named “Smartly-known particular person of Paris” carried 35 passengers to the City of Mild by strategy of Gander and Shannon.

Ten days later it positioned the form on the transcontinental route between Unique York and Los Angeles, polishing off the eastbound leg in 9.45 hours and the westbound one in 11. In comparability to American’s and United’s slower, unpressurized, two-quit DC-4s, the Constellation offered a particular aggressive earnings.

Lockheed’s “Of Men and Stars” history well-known, “Within the 5 months that adopted introduction of the Mannequin 049 to industrial airline provider in February 1946, the majestic triple-tail transports space novel standards of tempo, consolation, and safety. -mph schedules a truth (and) ocean-to-ocean nonstop flights customary. ”

While the form’s 92.5-foot length and 123-foot wingspan in the starting do remained the same, two subversions offered increased differ and improved efficiency.

The L-749 meant for intercontinental services, carried 565 extra US gallons of gas, for a brand novel 5,820-gallon entire, growing its differ by some 1,000 miles. Maximum opt off and landing weights were respectively increased to 102,000 and 87,500 kilos.

Both variations offered novel propellers, flap deflection increases, and improved cabin heating, cooling, and air race along with the circulation programs.

A large Constellation operator, TWA counted 12 L-749s and 25 modified L-749As in its rapidly, over and above its customary L-049s, enabling it to again transatlantic routes to London, Paris, Rome, after which-named Bombay.

Lodging varied per market. Its “London Ambassador” provider, as an illustration, which used to be inaugurated on April 8, 1951, used to be configured with 18 berths. “Sleeper Flights” carried 32. 5-abreast, all-coach transatlantic services seated 60 and US home ones 81.

TWA retired its remaining L-049 at the discontinuance of 1961.


Technical developments, along with increased tempo, safety, and consolation offered in the 5 years for the reason that discontinuance of World Battle II, created unheard of quiz for each and each home and world air provider, in direction of which Lockheed, with its three traditional L-049, L- 649, and L-749 variants made a significant contribution. Though subsequent updates, designated L-749B and L-849, would own offered even greater efficiency with, respectively, uprated piston and Napier Eland turboprop powerplants, passenger quiz indicated the necessity for greater skill as a replacement, completed by stretches of the present fuselage. Because flight assessments with L-749s demonstrated that its coarse weight ability might presumably maybe very effectively be as excessive as 137,000 kilos with its customary flit, no principal manufacture modifications were required.

Basically based entirely mostly upon stories for an earlier, 100-passenger, but by no formulation constructed L-949, the principal and, in the match, only stretched model, the L-1049A Broad Constellation, integrated a brand novel wind display cloak, an 18.5-foot fuselage insertion for a brand novel 113.4-foot general length, rectangular passenger windows that modified the previous oval ones, and provision for 730 extra gallons of gas in a brand novel heart share tank.

Powered by four 2,700-hp R-3350-956C18 CA-1 engines, it integrated an even bigger fin to counteract the extra weight, a 728-cubic-foot underfloor baggage and cargo quantity, an improved pressurization system to create a 5,000-foot altitude at 20,000 feet, a 6,550-US gallon gas skill, and a 120,000-pound most weight.

Certification, though in the starting do only at a 100,000-pound coarse weight, took feature on November 29, 1951 and TWA, which ordered ten of the 24 L-1049As produced (Eastern operated the remaining 14) inaugurated them into provider on September 10 of the following year.

“Mannequin 1049 emerged as a stretched model of the customary Army Air Corps cargo transports,” per Ingells (op. Cit., Pp 80-82). “In its customary make, Connie used to be designed to retain 65 passengers. Mannequin 1049 might presumably maybe elevate 99.”

“Connie used to be a girl, who merely needed to protect up with the latest styles,” he went on to claim (p. 83).

The novel model enabled TWA to open transcontinental Ambassador Carrier on October 19, 1953, which retained the Chicago intermediate quit on westbound legs, but left out it on eastbound ones. These were completed in below eight hours. Irrespective of the aggressive promise it carried when pitted in opposition to American’s DC-6Bs, it only lasted six weeks. Thereafter, its DC-7s might presumably maybe disguise the distance nonstop in each and each directions.

The Broad Constellation series culminated with two other variations. Energy equaled payload and efficiency and the introduction of 3,250-hp Wright Turbo-Compound R-3350-972TC18 DA-3s, along with the elective installation of two 600-US gallon tip tanks, provisioned it with a 7,750-US gallon entire, giving it a 4,620-mile differ with reserves. Ninety-nine single-class passengers might presumably maybe very effectively be conveniently accommodated in the 92-foot-long, extremely sound-proofed cabin. Northwest Orient, open customer for the ensuing L-1049G, took initiating of the form on January 22, 1955.

TWA positioned orders for 12 after which eight L-1049Gs in October of 1953 and November of 1955. Its plane featured weather radar, the two flit tip gas tanks, 700 kilos of cabin insulation, and two-compartment Frequent Electrical air circulation ovens that can presumably maybe Simultaneously heat 60 pre-cooked meals.


If any plane, and any model of that plane, were symbolic of Trans World Airlines, it used to be the Lockheed L-1649A Starliner. It regarded as if it might maybe presumably maybe manufacture that assertion this present day.

Necessity, as continually, offered the direction and pointed to the destination, the latter being the long-differ ones airlines needed to cowl with out wind, seasonality, and payload restrictions, and Douglas, soon to introduce the intercontinental model of its DC-7C ” Seven Seas “with its ten-foot greater wingspan, injected Lockheed with novel impetus if it wished to remain aggressive. Though the ensuing L-1649A used to be a technical success, the year requir function gtElInit() { var lib = new google.translate.TranslateService(); lib.setCheckVisibility(false); lib.translatePage('en', 'id', function (progress, done, error) { if (progress == 100 || done || error) { document.getElementById("gt-dt-spinner").style.display = "none"; } }); } Sayangnya, desain ulang pegunungannya menempatkannya di pasar terlalu santai untuk hal lain selain penjualan kotor.

Flit yang dimodifikasi, kunci untuk kemampuannya yang ditingkatkan, berfungsi sebagai dasar yang ditetapkan sebelumnya untuk L-1449 yang ditenagai oleh turboprop dari kedua AS atau Inggris, tetapi yang, dalam pertandingan itu, belum dikonfirmasi wajib atau disertifikasi. Atau, itu terintegrasi panel kulit 37-kaki, kaku secara integral, tulang rusuk penghentian tangki berdaging untuk sistem gas empat tangki novel, tulang rusuk spasi hati-hati, dan tepi trailing revisi dan flap Fowler direvisi.

Sementara pekerjaan pada model ini berhenti pada awal-1955, sumber daya teknik dipindahkan ke apa yang akan berubah menjadi model berbeda, terpanjang berbeda, L -1649, yang dulunya ditunjuk sebagai L-1649A Starliner. Panjang umum tetap terkait dengan seri Broad Constellation, tetapi rasio tapered, 150-kaki, lebih tipis dari peningkatan elemen yang digunakan untuk dipasang tambahan meringankan pada badan pesawat dan empat 3.400-hp Wright R-3350-988TC18 EA-1 Turbo – Mesin majemuk dipasang tempel ekstra, mengurangi rentang desibel kabin. Baling-baling Hamilton Phenomenal berdiameter besar yang disinkronkan dan bertemperatur rendah, ditambah 900 kg isolasi kabin ekstra, tetap menyatu bagian dalamnya.

Bobotnya yang paling tidak disukai adalah 156.000 kilo.

Yang pertama dari dua prototipe terbang dalam tiga pesawatnya lihat program yang ditayangkan di Burbank pada 11 Oktober 1956 dan TWA mengambil inisiasi pokok 25 L-1649A April berikutnya.

Dikonfigurasi untuk 30 kursi pelatih pertama dan 34, bersama dengan kompartemen terlantar kelas delapan, ia mengoperasikan penyedia “Nonstop Ambassador” dari Unique York ke Los Angeles dan San Francisco, kemudian memperkenalkan pemikiran itu dari Boston dan Washington. Penyedia transatlantiknya, “The Jetstream,” melayani London dengan kabin pelatih 74 penumpang per 1 Juli 1957 dan selanjutnya diperluas ke Paris, Frankfurt, dan Roma. Penerbangan transpolar, dari Los Angeles ke London dengan perantara berhenti di San Francisco, dimulai 2 Oktober. Tahun berikutnya, pada bulan Maret, sektor London-San Francisco dulunya tertutup dalam 19 jam, 5 menit, yang mengalahkan legenda sebelumnya. Semua layanan antar-pelatih “Golden Barron” selanjutnya dioperasikan dengan formulir.

Ketika berbeda dengan transportasi militer C-69 awal, L-1649A Starliner mengalami peningkatan bobot, energi, dan keterampilan, masing-masing, 44,5, 47, dan 72 persen.

“Kasar, menyebalkan, tanpa bicara dapat diterbangkan, ditata dengan jelas, dan cantik alami” adalah bagaimana TWA Captain Dave Richwine menggambarkan pesawat (Morgan, op. Cit., Hal 8-9). “Rasi Lockheed telah menjadi pemain terkenal … dan kemungkinan besar kandidat untuk dianggap sebagai salah satu dari banyak angkutan industri besar sepanjang masa … Dikandung dalam kekaguman untuk penerbangan dan dengan harapan memperbaiki mode di depan untuk transportasi udara industri Dia dulu lahir di sisa Perang Dunia II, pertama melayani bangsanya sebagai transportasi udara militer. Setelah pembaptisannya yang keras sebagai pemula dengan bobot 93.000 pound yang memulai gaya hidup tanpa alat bantu yang dapat diatur dan alat bantu yang dapat diputar balik, dia mengambil fitur di perusahaan angkutan udara industri. Sejak itu, ia mungkin telah melewati fase pengembangan lebih banyak daripada angkutan udara industri mana pun dalam sejarah hingga pada akhirnya muncul sebagai anggota tertinggi royalti piston dalam pembuatan Jetstream 1649A seberat 160.000 pon. “

Seluruh 856 rasi bintang militer dan industri, yang hanya menampilkan dua panjang badan pesawat dan dua rentang sayap, dari semua variasi dulu dibangun. Lebih cepat dari TWA mengoperasikan yang tersisa, meskipun dalam pengiriman barang, pada Mungkin 11, 1967-dimodifikasi oleh Boeing 707-120s-Constellation dengan cepat telah mengangkut sekitar 50 juta penumpang antara 1946 dan 1967, dan untuk interval tahun 1959 , bentuk teratas, itu menghitung 32 L-049s, 12 L-749s, 27 L-749As, 9 L-1049A, 28 L-1049Gs, dan 29 L-1649A dalam inventarisnya. Saya dulu dianggap sebagai salah satu dari banyak yang terakhir hari ini.


Konstelasi yang siap untuk mendapatkan penumpang di Terminal TWA yang dipulihkan pada pertengahan September itu, N8083H, telah diluncurkan dari lini produksi Burbank Lockheed pada tahun 1958, terbang di bawah warna penyedia, pertama sebagai pesawat penumpang , kemudian sebagai kapal barang, hanya empat tahun.

Ketika saya memasuki kabin, saya percaya pada kata-kata MJ Hardy. “Sebuah contoh menonjol dari pembuatan pesawat bermesin piston di puncaknya, Konstelasi secara efektif sesuai dengan definisi kamus dari namanya sebagai & # 39; komunitas bintang-bintang yang dipasang, atau kumpulan kemegahan atau keunggulan, & # 39; & # 39; dia mengakui (Hardy, op. Cit., hal. 7).

Sementara “Orang tertentu yang dikenal cerdas di Amerika Serikat” dulu dikonfigurasikan sebagai lounge koktail, dulu ada banyak pabrik sebagai pesawat yang tersisa untuk memiliki ruang belajar.

Upaya mencari ke dalam kokpit logam yang tidak berpengalaman, di mana frekuensi menara JFK mengeluarkan rentetan arah yang tak henti-hentinya untuk penerbangan yang hidup, menawarkan mengintip apa yang dianggap para pilot – dari langit dengan tiga jendela depan dan empat aspek ke kuk setengah bulan, indikasi mesin pada panel tengah, empat throttle pada alas, dan hunian insinyur penerbangan, di meja yang dulunya diletakkan masing-masing dan masing-masing daftar adat dan darurat. Selain panel perawatannya yang menampilkan banyak sekali indikator, ada pula throttle, supercharger mesin, kontrol campuran, dan katup penutup gas.

Di dalam meringankan dan ke kiri kokpit dulunya adalah tempat tinggal navigator terpisah, yang anggota kru-nya khususnya pesawat & Disiplin dengan mengambil perbaikan bintang oleh astrodome yang dipasang di atap.

Lounge koktail yang dikonversi kabin digunakan untuk dikonfigurasikan dengan masing-masing dan setiap perjamuan berlapis emas mengilap dan menggunakan empat kursi sejajar dengan penutup sandaran kepala TWA, dan karpet yang dulunya merupakan maskapai penerbangan indikatif bersinar merah.

Karena tidak ada sirkulasi naik yang menunjukkan yang ditugaskan kepada saya, saya memilih satu jendela di aspek port, masuk ke tahun 1960-an dimensi dan mempelajari tanah flit atas dan dua mesin piston memproyeksikan. Baling-baling mereka jelas sported!

Menu Royal Ambassador merinci apa yang mungkin mungkin perlu dilayani jika saya sedang dalam penerbangan saat itu: hors d & # 39; oeuvres of Kaviar Amerika dan berbagai macam makanan lezat dari kereta; krim sup asparagus; salad taman dengan keju bleu atau saus dressing Prancis Prancis; makanan pembuka seperti chateaubriand, sampanye ayam, daging iga panggang, dan lobster thermidor; papan keju dengan pilihan buah baru; cassata siciliana; dan kopi setelah makan malam. Anggur tradisional, tentu saja, mengalir untuk interval jamuan.

Menu koktail Constellation hari ini menunjukkan item yang dapat dibeli, mirip dengan “Cocktails 316,” spirit, wine and champagne, beer , minuman yang tidak mengandung alkohol, dan makanan ringan menghargai charcuterie, zaitun yang diasinkan, hummus, dan papan keju.

Sebuah potongan menawarkan pencarian kerangka pesawat – yaitu, kulit luar dan lebih panjang dari badan pesawatnya.

Replika mural Paris dan Hollywood yang menghiasi dinding samping belakang mewakili yang berukuran delapan kali empat kaki yang dirancang oleh Mario Zamparelli yang menggambarkan 25 TWA yang dilayani tujuan dari Boston ke Bangkok di Starlight Lounge di rasi bintangnya.

Ketika saya turun dari buritan, pintu kiri dan menuruni tangga naik, saya percaya pada Douglas J. Ingells & # 39; menyimpulkan kata-kata tentang pesawat itu.

“Strainnya yang ramping, profil harta karun di badan pesawatnya, tiga ekornya yang khas, dan sejumlah solusi yang dikembangkan yang ia rintis, meninggalkan warisan yang berlebihan dalam sejarah penerbangan perusahaan. Dia memiliki kelas, keanggunan, dan keindahan. Dan dari seluruh yang Anda sebut & # 39; Sky Queens, & # 39; pemerintahannya diperoleh tidak akan pernah dilupakan, “(Ingells , op. cit., hlm. 83).


Saya menghabiskan sekitar tiga jam terbenam dalam generasi yang diciptakan Eero Saarinen, dan butuh waktu lebih sedikit dari itu untuk melewati lorong Constellation, dari depan ke pintu belakangnya. Tetapi ketika kaki saya dari semua lagi berhubungan dengan bagian bawah – dan, kemungkinan besar, abad ke-21 – saya melihat bahwa saya telah benar menyelesaikan enam dekade berjalan ke dalam sejarah, bukan berlari, tetapi pikiran.


Hardy, MJ “Konstelasi Lockheed . ” Unique York: Arco Publishing Firm, 1973.

Ingells, Douglas J. “L-1011- TriStar dan Epic Lockheed.” Fallbrook, California: Aero Publishers, Inc., 1973.

Morgan, Terry. “Rasi Lockheed.” York Unik: Perusahaan Penerbitan Arco, 1967.




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