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The Historic sebelumnya dari Grumman Corporation: The Early Years


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Origins and Biplanes:

Synonymous with Prolonged Island, the Grumman Corporation used to be regarded as one of many world’s premier defense force plane producers.

It traces its origins, nonetheless, to a man named Grover Loening, an aeronautical engineer who had expert ties with Orville Wright and had later labored within the Navy’s aeronautical engineering build of job earlier than founding his non-public, namesake Loening Plane and Engineering Corporation in 1917, located in a 3-story plant on Contemporary York’s East Aspect.

An dazzling gross sales prospect, the fledgling aviation firm used to be ensuing from this fact absorbed by the Keystone Plane Firm, whose point of curiosity used to be a twin-engine bomber slated for the Air Corps, and the Loening personnel got the option of relocating to its Bristol, Pennsylvania, headquarters, or turning into unemployed.

One amongst them used to be Leroy Randle Grumman. A key engineer in Philadelphia and take a look at pilot for Loening’s non-public two-seat fighter, he used to be on the origin persuaded to relinquish his Navy carrier for a plant manager build with the Loening firm itself in 1920, but now, at the side of its other workers, used to be forced to determine between the Keystone relocation or a jobless station.

He selected the latter, and elected to faucet into his abilities to came upon his non-public firm, the Grumman Plane Engineering Corporation, on January 2, 1930 in its build. It would soon exhibit the tenets of pleasure, loyalty, and dedication upon which it rested.

Electing to point of curiosity on defense force designs, he tweaked out preliminary, plane-transitional income from the restore and remanufacture of the Loening amphibians with which his mostly ex-Loening workers had been acquainted.

The first so-called “plant,” a rented, rectangular cinder block in 1st earl baldwin of bewdley, had been inceptionally worn by the Cox-Klemin airplane producer, and it inauspiciously opened its doors to a spartan interior occupied by a scatter of furnishings and engineering-linked equipment, equivalent to drafting tables, drill presses, and woodworking machines.

Initial process, albeit of non-Grumman indigenous designs, served because the transitional hyperlink from the used Loening endeavor, but Grumman’s non-public defense force point of curiosity used to be soon established.

The Navy, operating a snappy of each and every landing gear- and scoot along with the circulate-geared up Vought Corsair scout and observation kinds, wanted a hybrid have confidence which would incorporate each and every modes, and Grumman devised a lightweight scoot along with the circulate into which its wheels would possibly perchance presumably well decide. Two, based entirely on its contract, were constructed for take a look at and evaluate applications. Finally proving themselves, they were retrofitted, as Mannequin A floats, to the Navy’s Corsairs and, at some stage in, created a connection between the Grumman Plane Engineering Corporation and this carrier department for its better than six-decade historical previous.

Its second project, equally requested by the Navy’s Plans Division, used to be to interchange the mounted undercarriage of its Boeing biplane fighters with a retractable one in repeat to lower their drag and beef up their tempo. No longer just like the relatively straightforward scoot along with the circulate set up, nonetheless, the plane’s slim fuselage wanted vastly redesign, and Grumman considered the obstacle as an opportunity-particularly, to pitch its non-public-and first-airframe to interchange it.

No subject the serene-early evolutionary stage of aeronautical technology, the plane, designed to occupy the Navy’s March 6, 1931 quiz for a Excessive Performance Fighter, included a critical amount of it. Featuring a 24.6-foot total length, it employed an aluminum alloy, semi-monocoque fuselage; a Grumman-designed truss; staggered biplanes whose span stretched to 34.6 toes and produced a 310-sq.-foot space; a 9-cylinder, air-cooled, Wright Cyclone R-1820 radial engine; a drag-lowering cowling; an enclosed, veil-covered, dual-particular person, pilot-and-gunner, tandemly-organized cockpit; and the soon-to-become Grumman attribute hand-cranked, vertically-retracting undercarriage, stowed in forward-fuselage wheel wells sooner than the soar progressive.

First flying on December 29 in prototype create because the XFF-1, the 4,677-pound, carrier-based entirely fighter used to be the first naval have confidence to exceed 200 mph in stage flight, and would possibly perchance presumably well climb at 5,000 fpm and attain a 22,100-foot carrier ceiling .

An repeat for 27 manufacturing FF-1s adopted and most of them, changing Boeing F4B-2s in 1933, were assigned to Naval Air Predicament (NAS) North Island in California.

A scout model, the SF-1, attracted an repeat for 34.

Dwelling-constrained by his long-established 1st earl baldwin of bewdley facility and ensuing from this fact unable to occupy the Navy’s fighter and scout orders, Grumman used to be forced to scoot wanting an alternative, and better, plant, selecting a 200-by-100-foot concrete block eight miles to the west, in Valley Circulation, in what itself had ironically been a used Naval Reserve Hangar. Internally unpartitioned, it facilitated a extra streamlined manufacturing scoot along with the circulate and equipped the optimally-wanted flooring space, yet on the identical time afforded plane checking out ensuing from its adjacency to Curtiss Self-discipline. The relocation occurred in November of 1931.

Smooth hungry for space to meet manufacturing demands and faced with the drawing shut expiration of its one-year lease in 1932, nonetheless, Grumman pulled up its roots for a second time and relocated 16 miles to the east again, selecting a building on the Fairchild flying subject in Farmingdale. In the starting up worn by the Fulton Truck Firm, it had moreover been briefly occupied by Sherman Fairchild himself and the American Airplane and Engine Firm.

Serving as space for four and a half of years, it witnessed manufacturing of the FF-1, the SF-1, and an amphibious model, which mated the used with the Grumman-designed Mannequin B retractable undercarriage-provisioned floats and designated the “Duck . ”

No subject the seeming impermanence of its plant areas, the Grumman Plane and Engineering Corporation established the connections and characteristics which would pervade its carrier-borne and amphibious plane historical previous, all designed to occupy Navy requirements and supported by defense contracts.

Amphibious Industrial:

Because mostly Navy and Waft Guard contracts lastly exceeded even the capacity of its Farmingdale plant, and since its optimized enlargement would have entailed critical renovation and worth, Grumman as soon as extra turned his sights to a brand new get 22 situation-on this case, a 120-acre one in Bethpage, relinquishing its present facility to the Seversky Plane Firm.

After half of a year of setting up, which began on October 26, 1936, the swiftly expanding producer opened its new hangar doors on April 8 and the Bethpage facility soon became synonymous with, if no longer a fortress of, Grumman, rising from the as soon as barren subject within the create of Plant 1. Made out of two 140-foot-long by 20-foot-huge low bay sections, it moreover sported a single, 400-foot-long by 120-foot-huge excessive bay, a 100-by- 100 foot hangar, and, a short time later, a grass strip.

The role change signaled, for the first time, a approach change. Even supposing, esteem the Duck, the next critical have confidence included amphibious capabilities, it deviated by transitioning from the bi- to the monoplane configuration and it used to be geared toward the industrial market.

Designated the G-21 Goose, the ten-finest – and first twin-engine, non-defense force derivative plane-sported a two-step floatable hull, giving it a 38.3-foot length; a excessive soar with a 49-foot span; and two Pratt and Whitney 9-cylinder, 450-hp Wasp Junior radials mounted on and projecting forward of the soar progressive. It used to be ground-supported by a single-wheeled, hand-retractable, veteran landing gear, which used to be flushly saved in both fuselage aspect. The equally retractable tailwheel used to be steerable. Piloted by two, it equipped overjoyed inner lodging for six to eight passengers with a galley and a bathroom.

Intended as a non-public and company plane with amphibious capability to interchange the Loening Air Yacht and Commuter kinds, the project used to be overtaken by Grumman upon Loening’s suggestion, since he had lacked the plant capacity to proceed with it.

First flying on Can also simply 29, 1937, the 7,500-pound airliner, with a 175-mph cruise tempo and 795-mile differ, used to be awarded its Accredited Form Certificates on September 29 and, as envisioned, used to be operated by rich individuals, oil and mining firms, and firms.

KNILM, KLM’s East Indies subsidiary, served as its first industrial operator, and it proved supreme to third-stage carriers whose worthy route topographies, produced from a ways-off islands and peninsulas, depended upon its rugged, legitimate building and land, ice, and water capabilities, as lifelines to tiny communities. It wore the colours of Alaska Coastal and Reeve Aleutian Airways. Antilles Air Boats, which inaugurated carrier in 1964, indirectly operated 18 of the form, while registrations as a ways afield as Australia represented its various transport capability.

Defense force operators included the Royal Canadian Air Force, the Navy Air Corps, and the Navy, the latter of which gathered a 35-staunch snappy by the discontinue of `1941.

Its sturdiness, coupled with subsequent modifications, ensured better than 5 a long time of carrier with operators in a huge differ of roles, including these retrofitted with skis and hydrofoils and these powered by four piston and two turboprop engines.

Between 1937 and 1945, 345 G-21s were produced.

Because Grumman believed that the form’s dimension and worth runt its allure, he commenced work on a smaller model, designated “Invent 44,” which used to be intended to enhance and prevail it.

Powered by two 200-hp, six-cylinder, air-cooled Ranger 6-440C-5 engines, the consequent plane, soon named the G-44 Widgeon, sported a 31.1-foot total length and 40-foot span, optimizing it for four passengers. Comparatively, it equipped a 3,000-pound lower immoral weight, of 4,525 pounds, and first flew on June 28, 1940.

Even supposing it proved versatile sufficient for a form of roles, including seaplane trainers for Pan American Airways, utility liners, and search and rescue plane for the US Waft Guard, its manufacturing total of 276, at the side of 41 license-constructed by the Societe de Constructions Aero-Navales, proved tiny better than its better predecessor’s had been.

The Avenger and the Cats:

Even supposing serene most inspiring manifesting itself as a ways-off hiss, battle’s reverberations had already introduced about Grumman to attain to its defense force plane have confidence roots.

In repeat to prevail the previous biplane fighter, the F3F, and offer gracious tempo, it drew up plans for the XF4F-1 in March of 1936, but it would have suffered from performance disadvantages over the competing, monoplane-configured Brewster B-139 , thus prompting an intensive redesign to deviate from its long-established FF-1 lineage.

Powered by a single, 1,050-hp Pratt and Whitney R-1830-66 engine, the cantilever, all-metal, mid-soar, NACA airfoiled monoplane sported a veteran tail and retained the Grumman attribute landing gear. It used to be designated the “Wildcat.”

First flying from Bethpage on September 2, 1937 because the XF4F-1 and delivered to Naval Air Predicament Anacostia three months later, on December 23, it swiftly revealed crankshaft deficiencies and used to be rejected by the Navy, prompting yet extra redesign. The succeeding XF4F-2, maintaining the previous model’s fuselage, introduced increased-span and -space wings with sq. guidelines and the 1,200-hp two-stage, two-tempo supercharger-geared up R-1830-76, which drove a Curtiss Electric propeller . Alternatively, flight tests equally revealed shortcomings, notably these linked to stability, and it ensuing from this fact included soar dihedral and modifications to beef up engine cooling.

As the definitive F4F-3 Wildcat, it attracted a 54-staunch repeat from the Navy.

By the discontinue of the decade, the mounting battle clouds began to unleash their torrential conflicts, and within the US, President Roosevelt opened the country umbrella of arsenal security by announcing a national defense policy, which advocated annual plane manufacturing of 10,000 devices. Grumman, unnecessary to order, used to be expected to manufacture a critical form of them.

The F4F would become the first hyperlink in what would lastly become a chain of 5 “cats,” each and every of which purred extra loudly than the prior one.

The F4F-4, with a 28.9-foot length and 38-foot span, featured a 5,758-pound empty and 7,952-pound immoral weight. Powered by the R-1830-86 powerplant, it equipped feisty performance: a 1,950-fpm climb rate and a 318-mph tempo at 19,400 toes, even though its carrier ceiling extended as excessive as 34,000 toes. Carrier storage used to be facilitated by manually foldable wings.

Temporarily lifted Pronounce Division restrictions on the origin allowed gross sales of the first Wildcats to the French so that they would perhaps presumably well equip their two in-building plane carriers. Because rising battle demands delayed their other Pratt and Whitney-powered airplanes, nonetheless, they were forced to revert to the Wright Cyclone, whose single-stage supercharger diluted its performance at excessive, thin altitudes. But, after France’s give up, its intended snappy used to be delivered to Britain.

When the battle clouds indirectly burst and rained havoc, they exerted unheard of ask on Grumman, which, at the side of Vought, used to be thenceforth ordered to manufacture the Navy, with whose carrier-based entirely have confidence requirements it had become increasingly acquainted.

War’s starvation gave the influence insatiable. Grumman, as an instance, produced 459 Wildcats in 1941, yet, despite the reflection across the Bethpage runway of the 4,000-particular person Plant 2 rising from the bottom since its building had commenced in September of 1940, it couldn’t satisfy it with out a third such facility. Plant 2 itself ironically opened on December 7, 1941, the identical day that the low Pearl Harbor assault screamed of the need for it, and Wildcat manufacturing would possibly perchance presumably well most inspiring be retained on the compulsory tempo by allowing Linden, Contemporary Jersey-based entirely Jap Plane, a division of Overall Motors, to license-build them as FM-1s and -2s.

Indeed, the eventual, 7,825-unit manufacturing consisted of 1,988 plane made by Grumman and 5,837 by Jap.

Instrumental within the Pacific, each and every the F4F-3 and -4 were concerned relating to the Doolittle Raid over Tokyo and other Eastern cities on April 16, 1942, as neatly as taking part within the first carrier fight within the Coral Sea from Can also simply 7 to 8 and the Fight of Halfway. They supplied aerial security at some stage within the amphibious landing in Guadalcanal.

Moreover the ever repeat Wildcat series, Grumman swiftly designed a second, moreover carrier-borne plane intended to fulfill the Bureau of Aeronautics’ requirement for a torpedo bomber. Of the 13 proposals submitted by Brewster, Douglas, Hall, Vought, Vultee, and Grumman itself, the latter’s, because the XTBF-1, used to be chosen the next April.

Adore the Wildcat, it used to be a mid- and foldable-soar monoplane, but used to be powered by a 1,700-hp, 14-cylinder, air-cooled Wright R-2600-8 engine riding a 3-bladed Curtiss Electric propeller. Resting on a tricycle undercarriage, it featured a hydraulically actuated inner bomb bay, and used to be considerably better. Its three-particular person crew, housed in a canopied cockpit, included the pilot, the navigator / ventral gunner, and the radio operator / dorsal gunner.

Moreover the complement of bombs and torpedoes, its armament included a.30-caliber forward and aft machine gun and a.50-caliber one in a dorsal, motor pushed ball turret. Its uncommon, Grumman-designed, foldable soar configuration entailed skewed axis movement, the wings themselves horizontally resting against the fuselage to lower storage requirements. It used to be usually known because the “sto-soar.”

Stretching 40 toes and carrying a 54.2-foot span within the extended build, the 15,905-pound TBF Avenger first disconnected itself from Bethpage soil on August 7, 1941. Its most tempo used to be 271 mph at 12,000 toes.

No subject its ever expanding manufacturing facilities, Grumman used to be unable to fulfill the Navy’s insatiable desire for plane, and, as had occurred with the Wildcat, entered into a license-building affiliation with Overall Motors / Jap Plane, whereby case they bore the “TBM “designation.

Of the 9,839 Avengers produced, Grumman itself assembled 2,293 and Jap Plane the last 7,546.

TBF and TBM Avengers took fragment in all Pacific battles, supporting amphibious operations from escort carriers, and engaged in anti-submarine missions in Europe.

Moreover the glaring need for plant facilities whereby to manufacture World War II’s fighters and bombers, and the ever-multiplying personnel to attain so, formal coaching, notably in aerodynamics and powerplants, used to be wanted to put collectively them for his or her functions. An preliminary, in-residence coaching program, performed by subject-proficient instructors, used to be ensuing from this fact replaced by courses taught by Contemporary York University’s Guggenheim College of Aeronautics professors at Hofstra University within the midst of Prolonged Island’s cradle of aviation, the build it had all begun.

By 1941, the gears of Grumman’s vegetation turned almost 24 hours per day with two, ten-hour shifts, and vitally wanted space used to be bought with the temporary leases of buildings in Amityville, 1st earl baldwin of bewdley, Lindenhurst, Syosset, and the 150,000-sq.-foot used Pan American defective in Port Washington, to which an extra 62,000 sq. toes used to be ensuing from this fact added. These “satellite” areas accounted for some 3,000 Grumman workers.

In Bethpage, yet a third plant, essentially intended as an incubator to the Wildcat’s successor, opened on March 16, 1942.

It used to be on the origin conceived as an improved model with a extra worthy engine, increased weights, and a wider undercarriage to elevate ground stability. But, in repeat to take elephantine income of the 1,600- to 1,700-hp Wright R-2600 engine, whose 33-percent amplify in strength manufacturing and better-diameter propeller would have rendered it unsuitable for an F4F derivative, Grumman designed an altogether better and additional apt fighter, which most inspiring superficially resembled its predecessor-the F6F Hellcat.

Sporting a 33.7-foot total length and 42.10-foot span, which gave it the finest soar space and due to this lowest soar loading of any US fighter, the F6F-3, with a 15,487-pound most weight, would possibly perchance presumably well climb at 3,500 fpm, yet its slack capability speeds facilitated carrier operations. Its landing gear retraction way, deviating from the Grumman identical previous, entailed a backwards swing into the soar root.

First flying on June 26, 1942, the Hellcat, in its F6F-5 model, featured a 2,000-hp Pratt and Whitney R-2800-10 two-stage radial, a 3-bladed Curtiss Electric propeller, and other enhancements, and attained 410-mph most speeds. The form, in all its versions, featured the finest soar space of ​​any single-engine fighter, stability as a bustle platform, tempo, maneuverability, and easy transition for newly trained naval pilots.

Due to its have confidence integrity, legitimate powerplant, intensive armament, and maneuverability, it used to be to blame for 55 percent of all enemy plane destruction within a two-year length, accounting for 5,156 victories as against 270 Hellcat losses, or a 19.1-to- 1 raze-to-loss ratio.

Its precept Pacific opponent used to be the Eastern A6M2 Zero, whose zinc-based entirely aluminum alloy, all-metal building counteracted the otherwise minuscule strength of its engine, giving the single-seat, low-soar, land- and carrier-based entirely fighter notably sprightly performance , even though its thin soar skins severely eroded its structural integrity and rendered it carefully dependent upon repairs and restore.

All thru the three-and-a-half of-year length from June of 1942 to November of 1945, 12,275 F6Fhellcats of all versions were produced.

With the introduction of the brand new, 11,000-ton Independence and 27,000-ton Essex class plane carriers in 1943, Grumman / Jap Plane and Douglas were mostly to blame for fleeting them, inflicting Grumman itself to attain its wartime pinnacles of 25,527 workers and a pair of,329,100 sq. toes of flooring space in Bethpage. Indeed, of the 34,664 plane produced at this time, 18,768 emerged from Grumman’s vegetation, 15,466 from Overall Motors / Jap Plane’s, and 330 from Columbia Plane’s.

Coupling the F6F Hellcat with the TBF / TBM Avenger used to be an early system to attain evening-combating capability within the Pacific. Alternatively, it demonstrated the need for a single have confidence which can presumably well incorporate each and every search and assault plot, ensuing within the next-and most inspiring dual-engine-one within the Cat series, the F7F Tigercat.

At 45 toes, 4 ½ inches in length, this single-seat, 51.6-foot spanned, mid- and foldable soar plane used to be powered by two, 2,100-hp R-2800-22W water-injected engines riding three-bladed propellers and used to be notorious for its elongated, AN / APS-6 radar-installed nostril. Closely armed, it featured four.50-caliber weapons and four 20-mm cannons, and had the aptitude of carrying two 2,000-pound bombs or a aggregate of torpedoes and rockets, yet had a 4,360-fpm most climb rate. Its all-up weight used to be 22,560 pounds.

Even supposing the single have confidence used to be on the origin intended to occupy each and every the Navy’s and the Navy’s requirements, with the precept variations between the 2 being the turbo-supercharged engines of the used and the robotically charged ones of the latter, the Navy indirectly withdrew its curiosity, despite having ordered two prototypes, leaving Grumman to completely optimize it for the Navy. But, its better-than-identical previous capability speeds and the need for increased-capacity interesting gear and specialized barrier installations rendered it much less than ultimate and made it advanced to incorporate in present naval operations, even though it used to be cleared for them. As a result, it used to be relegated to mostly land-based entirely missions at some stage whereby its ultimate performance and nerve-racking armament strengths would possibly perchance presumably well be extra neatly exploited.

As World War II injure down, so, too, did its manufacturing, ending at 364 airframes.

In part to dwell competitive-and in all likelihood repetitive-and moreover to revive its repute, Grumman reverted to its subsequent, and closing, Cat mannequin within the series, whose dimension used to be intended to approximate that of the one which had launched all of it-the F4F Wildcat -but whose performance used to be intended to eclipse even that of the F6F Hellcat.

With a 27.6-foot total length and 35.6-foot span, the plane, designated the F8F Bearcat, used to be powered by a single, 2,100-hp R-2800-34W engine riding a four-bladed propeller and first flew on August 31, 1944 Ready to climb at 4,570-fpm, it would possibly perchance perchance probably probably presumably well attain a most, 434-mph tempo at 19,800 toes.

Even supposing it exhibited prominent performance, the raging battle clouds had alas moved out, ensuing within the cancellation of its on the origin big repeat and limiting manufacturing to 1,265. It never saw World War II fight.

Nonetheless, the contribution of these Grumman fighters and torpedo bombers, which did, can no longer be underestimated. In keeping with authorities air fight records relating to Navy and Marine performance within the Pacific at some stage on this time, 1,295 Eastern airplanes had been shot down by Wildcats, 5,155 by Hellcats, and 98 by Avengers, and its wartime manufacturing achievements merited receipt of the Presidential Medal of Advantage in 1948 and the Daniel Guggenheim medal for “prominent success in successfully advancing plane have confidence for naval and peacetime thunder.”

World War II, which had been the catalyst of two,650,000 sq. toes of factory flooring space and a single-plant manufacturing document of 664 plane in March of 1945, used to be over. But new conflicts would soon erupt. And Grumman would as soon as extra secure its contribution to their resolutions-this time with a brand new powerplant form.

Early Jet Opponents:

Once fueled by battle and fed by defense contracts, Grumman realized that its tanks had bustle dry by the discontinue of 1945, forcing it to lay off three-fourths of its 20,500-staunch work force, putter at the side of short-term Tiger- and Bearcat manufacturing, and altogether end that of the Hellcat. Robbed of its defense force raison d’être, it contemplated different ideas in dispute that it would possibly perchance perchance probably probably presumably well, as a firm, proceed to outlive, and on the origin returned to the amphibious roots it had first planted with the Goose and later cultivated with the Widgeon.

But, even though the succeeding, twin-engine, excessive-soar, boat-hulled Mallard used to be extra evolved and equipped a 12-passenger capacity to commuter and feeder airlines, it mostly fell victim, esteem each and every flying boats, to function gtElInit() { var lib = new google.translate.TranslateService(); lib.setCheckVisibility(false); lib.translatePage('en', 'id', function (progress, done, error) { if (progress == 100 || done || error) { document.getElementById("gt-dt-spinner").style.display = "none"; } }); }  memasang gedung bandara pertempuran yang proliferasi landasan pacu menyingkirkan kebutuhan untuk operasi lantai air di semua kecuali pulau dan sistem rute jalan, menghasilkan hiruk pikuk manufaktur 59.

Kemampuan amfibi, namun demikian, dulunya merupakan bagian integral dari misi udara yang jelas – terutama ini dilakukan dengan alasan pencarian-dan-penyelamatan- dan Grumman selanjutnya melengkapi Albatross bermesin ganda, berlebih-tinggi, hingga saat ini yang terbaik memiliki kepercayaan diri, menampung 14 penumpang atau 16 liter penderita. Terbang pertama pada tahun 1947, dulu dipesan oleh Angkatan Udara yang sekarang jujur, Waft Guard, Angkatan Laut, dan beberapa negara.

Namun upaya ini mungkin akan lebih baik jika tidak lagi mendukung pembuatan massal yang telah menjadi terbiasa pada tahap tertentu dalam pertempuran , dan akan segera setelah gape tambahan kekuatan pertahanan memiliki kepercayaan diri dengan kemampuan tempur jika ingin mencapai mode ini.

Karena alasan Wright Brothers pertama kali menaklukkan penerbangan yang lebih berat dari udara pada tahun 1903, penerbangan telah diluncurkan ke arah yang diaspal dengan terus maju teknologi. Pada pertengahan 1950-an, tempo konstruksi itu direplikasi untuk mereplikasi kesibukan yang diberikan, kemampuan daya dorong yang berkembang dari powerplants yang berkembang melebihi apa yang terjadi dalam waktu singkat di masa lalu telah memberi pengaruh “pekerjaan tercanggih” dan mengubah profil dari armada kapal induk yang ditanggung oleh Angkatan Laut. Sementara mereka segera menampilkan bobot amoral sebesar 15.000 pound, ini sekarang telah dipertahankan tiga kali lipat akan meningkat, sehingga siap untuk melayani sebagai platform pembawa senjata.

Bahkan seandainya F8F Bearcat mewakili kepala konstruksi fighter piston, itu sama-sama mengurangi konseptualisasi dan memiliki kepercayaan terhadap rekanan jet murni, menyerahkan pasar ke McDonnell. Grumman, setelah fakta ini, memiliki sedikit perbedaan tetapi untuk menyelamatkan wilayah ini.

Perang Korea menandai transisi teknologi dari piston ke mesin jet murni, dan entri non-publiknya ditenagai olehnya, F9F Panther, berfungsi sebagai ungkapan melambung itu.

Olah turbojet Rolls Royce Nene seberat 5.000 dorong, pesawat, dengan panjang 37,5 kaki, menampilkan intake udara akar yang melambung; mid, straight soar, yang bentangnya dulu paling menginspirasi setengah punuk lebih baik dari panjangnya; unjettisonable, 120-US tip galon tank; ekor loraine yang tidak menyenangkan; dan undercarriage roda tiga. Gunung pada 6.000 fpm, itu memiliki tempo 525-mph paling tinggi dan langit-langit pembawa 44.600 kaki. Bobotnya yang tidak bermoral adalah 19.494 pound.

Pertama bercerai dari landasan pacu di Bethpage pada 21 November 1947, jet fighter memasuki pabrik karena F9F-2, dan dulu diadopsi oleh Allison JF-J33-A-8 dengan daya dorong 4,600 pound dua tahun kemudian.

MiG-15 yang lebih ringan, ekstra manuver, dan melayang-layang, yang berfungsi sebagai lawan Perang Korea, membatasi Panther peran awal untuk sebuah pesawat serangan yang ditanggung oleh kapal induk, tetapi itu memang menjadi jet tempur pertama Angkatan Laut yang melarikan diri dalam pertempuran, menghabiskan banyak dari keberadaan kapal induknya sebagai pembom. Dihilangkan dari skuadron tempur operasional pada tahun 1956, F9F awal menikmati kesibukan manufaktur 1.385 unit.

Meskipun demikian, kinerja MiG memberi tahu Grumman tentang perlunya model tempo berikutnya, yang mungkin dapat menjadi inspirasi yang paling baik untuk dicapai dengan sapuan melambung.

Pada tanggal 2 Maret 1951, Biro Penerbangan memberikan kontrak kepada produsen Bethpage untuk memiliki kepercayaan pesawat dengan geometri prasyarat, dan terpilih untuk menjadikan guntur dari Panther F9F-5 yang mengkilap sebagai platformnya, mengawinkan badan terbangnya dan permukaan terbangnya dengan 35-tahap sapuan yang melambung dan apalagi ekor yang tersapu. Di belakang, kapabilitas yang didiktekan oleh operator dan kecepatan pendaratan dipertahankan dengan pemasangan bilah progresif akord yang lebih baik dan flap tepi trailing.

Peregangan badan pesawat maju dua kaki, dimaksudkan untuk menunda tank tip, namun berurusan dengan berbeda, digunakan untuk digabungkan dengan hidrolik- ekor terbang yang digerakkan, sementara kekuatan dulu dipasok oleh Pratt, 7.000 pound dorong tunggal dan Whitney J48-P-6, turbojet injeksi air.

Pertama kali terbang karena F9F-6 Cougar pada 20 September, pesawat yang digunakan siap untuk membuktikan parameter kinerja spektakulernya: a 6.750-fpm tingkat pendakian, tempo paling 654-mph, dan langit-langit pembawa 44.600 kaki.

F9F-7 dulu ditenagai oleh mesin 6.350 dorong-pon Allison J33-A-16.

Formulir itu menjadi pesawat Angkatan Laut yang diterbangkan oleh kapal induk Grumman yang pertama kali melayang. Memuja Panther yang melambung lurus, Cougar dulu diterbangkan oleh Blue Angels.

Tapi, lebih-lebih hargai F8F Bearcat – yang dianggap terlalu kendur untuk pertarungan Perang Dunia II – ia melewatkan prosedur Perang Korea yang dimaksudkan. Meskipun demikian, ia menjadi pesawat tempur yang paling lazim secara numerik dan paling lazim di beberapa tahap dalam tahun 1950-an, menunjukkan kemampuan kinerjanya di dalam Atlantik, Mediterania, dan Pasifik, dan memiliki kesibukan manufaktur 1.988 antara 1951 dan 1960.

Usang pada generasi yang semakin mempercepat kemajuan ini segera membuktikan bentuk musuh terakhir form, memaksa eliminasi dari posisi garis masuknya. Memang, ketika teknologi dipercepat, demikian juga, desain yang memasukkannya-dalam hal ini, untuk proporsi supersonik yang tepat.

Mesin jet murni dan sayap tersapu telah melayani karena tepi ke ranah penerbangan ini; sebuah merek baru memiliki kepercayaan diri, dengan badan pesawat ruang angkasa, akan berfungsi untuk melampauinya.

Menelusuri asal-usulnya ke Cougar F9F, ia muncul dengan sayap yang dipasang di tengah, 35-tingkat, dan melipat ke bawah yang panel tipisnya digiling dari aluminium berat; badan pesawat ruang angkasa, yang lebar menyempit di sayap & # 39; garis perlekatan mengurangi hambatan transonik; dan ekor veteran. Kontrol penerbangan digerakkan secara hidrolik. Didukung oleh mesin 7.400 dorong-pound Wright J65-W-8, pejuang satu kursi, dengan bobot 23.459 pound, mungkin akan naik ke 6.300 fpm dan mencapai kecepatan supersonik 754 mph, difasilitasi oleh 10.500 pon mesin dorong afterburner.

Bahkan seandainya Biro Aeronautika memesan tiga prototipe pada tanggal 27 April 1953, pesawat harus diidentifikasi karena Harimau F11F dan yang bertenaga asal oleh non-afterburner-diarahkan J65-W-7 turbojet, jatuh setelah dari api mesin keluar pada beberapa tahap dalam penerbangannya lihat, mendorong programnya relokasi ke Edwards AFB. Kekurangan kestabilan dan kontrol yang dihasilkan dari fakta ini mengharuskan lubang hidung yang lebih panjang dan kemudi yang lebih sempit.

Tidak ada subjek upaya supersonik pertama Grumman yang gagah, F11F digunakan untuk ditenagai oleh mesin yang sah sentuhan dan menunjukkan kinerja di bawah standar dalam perbandingan. dengan yang dimiliki Vought F8U-1 Crusader yang bersaing. Alhasil, ia memiliki hiruk pikuk manufaktur yang sedikit di tahun 201.

Karena jet jet murni Panther, Cougar & # 39; s, dan kecepatan dan pendaratan Tiger yang pada dasarnya lebih baik, Grumman memperluas landasan pacu ke 6.550 jari kaki untuk melayani mereka. Namun kompleks pabrik yang terkunci lahan, semakin dirambah oleh perluasan kota, segera terbukti tidak memadai, dan segera setelah ekstra mendorong mencari fasilitas yang lebih baik.




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